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How to stop the spread of COVID-19

COVID 19 - Prevention; 2019 Novel Coronavirus - Prevention; SARS CoV 2 - Prevention

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious respiratory disease affecting many people around the globe. It can cause mild to severe illness and even death. COVID-19 is a major health concern because it spreads easily between people, and there is no vaccine for it. So it's important to learn how to protect yourself and others from this illness.

Information

HOW COVID-19 SPREADS

COVID-19 is an illness caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 is thought to spread to people within close contact (about 6 feet or 1.8 meters). When someone with the illness coughs or sneezes, droplets carrying the virus spray into the air. You can catch the illness if you breathe in droplets, or if you touch these particles and then touch your eyes, nose, mouth or face. You also may get the illness if you touch a surface or object with the virus on it, but this is not the main way the virus spreads.

You can spread COVID-19 before you show symptoms. It is also thought that some people with the illness never have symptoms, but can still spread the disease.

At this time there is no vaccine and no medication available that can prevent COVID-19. However, there are a number to ways to protect yourself and others around you from getting COVID-19:

  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing. Droplets that are released when a person sneezes or coughs are infectious. Throw away the tissue after use.
  • Wash your hands many times a day with soap and running water for at least 20 seconds. Do this before eating or preparing food, after using the toilet, and after coughing, sneezing, or blowing your nose. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (at least 60% alcohol) if soap and water are not available.
  • Avoid touching your face, eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Do not share personal items such as cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding. Wash anything you have used in soap and water.
  • Clean all "high-touch" areas in the home, such as doorknobs, bathroom and kitchen fixtures, toilets, phones, tablets, and counters and other surfaces. Use a household cleaning spray and follow instructions for use.

SOCIAL (OR PHYSICAL) DISTANCING

To help prevent the spread of COVID-19 within the community, governments throughout the world and in the United States are recommending that people practice social distancing, also called physical distancing. This applies to people of all ages, including young people, teenagers, and children. While anyone can get sick, not everyone has the same risk of serious illness from COVID-19. Older people and people with existing health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, or lung disease have a higher risk of developing severe illness.

Everyone can help slow the spread of COVID-19 and help protect those who are most vulnerable by taking the following steps.

  • Avoid crowded public places and mass gatherings, such as shopping centers, movie theaters, concert halls, conferences, and sports stadiums.
  • Avoid large and small gatherings in private homes and public spaces such as parks, shops, and restaurants. Teens should not gather in groups at a park to play sports. Do not take children on in-person play dates.
  • Stay at least 6 feet (1.8 meters) from other people.
  • Work from home (if that is an option).
  • If possible, avoid public transportation and rideshares.

If you must go out for groceries or other needs:

While you must remain apart from others, you don't have to be socially isolated. Reach out to friends and family via phone or video chats. Schedule virtual social visits often. Doing so can help remind you that we are all in this together, and you are not alone.

To find out more about social distancing in your community, check your local or state government website.

HOME ISOLATION

If you have COVID-19 or have symptoms of it, you must isolate yourself at home and avoid contact with other people, both inside and outside your home, to avoid spreading the illness. This is called home isolation (also known as "self-quarantine").

  • As much as possible, stay in a specific room and away from others in your home. Use a separate bathroom if you can. Do not leave your home except to get medical care.
  • Do not travel while sick. Do not use public transportation or taxis.
  • Keep track of your symptoms and stay in touch with your doctor. Before you go to a doctor's office or emergency department (ED), call ahead and tell them that you have or think you may have COVID-19.
  • Use a face mask or cloth face cover when you see your health care provider and anytime other people are in the same room with you. If you can't wear a mask, for example, due to breathing problems, people in your home should wear a mask if they need to be in the same room with you.
  • Avoid contact with pets or other animals. (SARS-CoV-2 can spread from people to animals but it is not known how often this happens.)
  • Follow the same hygiene practices everyone should follow: cover coughs and sneezes, wash your hands, don't touch your face, don't share personal items, and clean high-touch areas in the home.

You should remain at home, avoid contact with people, and follow the guidance of your provider and local health department about when to stop home isolation. The decision to stop home isolation depends on the local situation in your area.

For the most up-to-date news and information about COVID-19, you can visit the following websites:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html.

World Health Organization website. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic - www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. How to protect yourself and others. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. Updated April 8, 2020. Accessed April 11, 2020.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Social distancing, quarantine, and isolation. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/social-distancing.html. Updated April 4, 2020. Accessed April 11, 2020.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Use of cloth face coverings to help slow the spread of COVID-19. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/diy-cloth-face-coverings.html. Updated April 9, 2020. Accessed April 11, 2020.

  • COVID-19

    COVID-19 - illustration

    Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a respiratory illness that ranges from mild symptoms to pneumonia or even death. Symptoms occur within 2 to 14 days from exposure to the virus and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, and new loss of sense of taste or smell. COVID-19 may be more severe in people who are older or who have chronic health conditions, such as heart disease or diabetes.

    COVID-19

    illustration

  • Handwashing

    Handwashing - illustration

    Steps for proper handwashing include. 1. Take off any jewelry. 2. Wet your hands with clean water. 3. Apply soap and lather your hands by rubbing them together for at least 20 seconds. 4. Make sure you also lather the back of the hands, between the fingers, and under the nails. Rinse well. 5. Dry with a clean towel or air dry. Proper handwashing is the best way to avoid spreading germs to help prevent infection.

    Handwashing

    illustration

    • COVID-19

      COVID-19 - illustration

      Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a respiratory illness that ranges from mild symptoms to pneumonia or even death. Symptoms occur within 2 to 14 days from exposure to the virus and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, and new loss of sense of taste or smell. COVID-19 may be more severe in people who are older or who have chronic health conditions, such as heart disease or diabetes.

      COVID-19

      illustration

    • Handwashing

      Handwashing - illustration

      Steps for proper handwashing include. 1. Take off any jewelry. 2. Wet your hands with clean water. 3. Apply soap and lather your hands by rubbing them together for at least 20 seconds. 4. Make sure you also lather the back of the hands, between the fingers, and under the nails. Rinse well. 5. Dry with a clean towel or air dry. Proper handwashing is the best way to avoid spreading germs to help prevent infection.

      Handwashing

      illustration

     

    Review Date: 4/11/2020

    Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 05/15/20.

    The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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